Traffic-induced vibration of transportation infrastructures is a reliable source of kinetic energy, which can be harvested to power conventional monitoring sensors and peripherals installed on bridges, thereby reducing some dependence on non-renewable energy. The highway statistics shows that the average daily vehicles miles travelled in the US is more than 5 billion. This is a massive source of kinetic energy that lies unused in the national transportation network. This study focuses on the design and field testing of a high-power density electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH) to convert such a kinetic energy into electrical energy for powering ubiquitous sensors installed on transportation infrastructures. The principal investigators have been investigating the design of the EMEH using analytical and finite element simulations, as well as, its laboratory prototype fabrication and testing in the first phase. The proposed EMEH utilizes the innovative concept of creating planar array of large number of small permanent magnets through certain optimization criteria to achieve strong and focused magnetic field in a particular orientation.
The proposed EMEH has a compact design, such that it can be integrated into the power circuit of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) and installed at suitable part of a transportation infrastructure without elaborate wiring. It is capable of continuously charging the rechargeable battery of a WSN, thereby extending the lifespan of the monitoring system, almost, indefinitely. For the next phase of this research, the principal investigators propose the development and field implementation of a larger scale and more compact version of the EMEH with a minimum of 500 mW output power to be installed on selected transportation infrastructures for the evaluation of its energy harvesting efficiency and capability to derive different types of monitoring sensors and peripherals. Three different highway bridges with different fundamental frequencies, ideally between 2Hz to 8Hz, will be selected for the field testing of the EMEH. An acceleration sensor will be used to record the traffic-induced vibration of each bridge during a normal daily traffic that after signal processing is used to measure the fundamental frequency of that bridge.
The dynamic characteristics of the proposed EMEH (i.e. tip mass and spring stiffness) will be modified to put it into a resonant condition with the bridge by matching their natural frequencies. The output power will be monitored and used to continuously charge a rechargeable battery powering a wireless sensor. The focus is on the feasibility of the proposed EMEH to power sensors that are used to regularly monitor the structural integrity of materials and components of highway bridges such as acceleration and temperature sensors.
The key objective of this research is to fabricate and field test a high-power density electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH) to provide a power source for conventional sensors installed on transportation infrastructures. This EMEH is expected to be simple, but effective in harvesting kinetic energy and converting it to electric power. Practical and economic feasibility and field implementation of the device on three steel-girder (or truss) highway bridges with three different fundamental frequencies will also be investigated in this work. Based on detailed numerical simulations and modeling, a prototype model of the device will be fabricated and then will be installed on three bridges to demonstrate the technology and its effectiveness in powering typical health monitoring sensors including acceleration sensors. Hence, the expected outcome of this research are:
- Development and field demonstration of the electromagnetic energy harvester to derive wireless sensors.
- Development of technical tools and design instruction to install and maintain the EMEH on highway bridges.
Professor, City College of New York
Anil K. Agrawal is the Principal Investigator on this project.
Assistant Professor, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Mohsen Amjadian is a Co-Principal Investigator on this project.
Associate Director, C2SMART
Hani Nassif is a Co-Principal Investigator on this project.